Jumat, 09 Mei 2008


Kata dakwah secara etimologis berasal dari kata “da’a-yad’u-da’watan” yang berarti memanggil, mengajak dan menyeru. Banyak pakar telah memberikan pengertian mengenai dakwah menurut istilah. Sayyid Qutb memberikan pengertian bahwa “dakwah adalah mengajak/menyeru orang lain masul ke dalam sabilillah, bukan untuk mengikuti da’i atau bukan pula untuk mengikuti sekelompok orang”. Ahmad Ghulusy menjelaskan bahwa “dakwah ialah pekerjaan atau ucapan untuk mempengaruhi manusia supaya mengikuti Islam”. Abdul Badi’ Shaqar tidak memberikan pengertian tetapi lebih menjelaskan macam da’wah fardhiyyah yaitu dakwah yang disampaikan kepada seseorang atau kelompok kecil orang yang berjalan tanpa perencanaan yang sistimatis dan kedua da’wah ‘ammah yaitu dakwah yang diarahkan kepada massa dengan tujuan mempengaruhi mereka. Muhammad Abu Zahrah menjelaskan bahwa dakwah dalam dua hal ; pertama, adanya organisasi (sistem) dakwah untuk menunaikan fardhu kifayah dan kedua, pelaksanaan dakwah perorangan. Dalam pengertian ini, maka yang pertama dapat disebut dakwah dan yang kedua disebut tabligh.
Dari beberapa pendapat di atas dapat dipahami, pertama, dakwah adalah mengajak manusia ke jalan Allah (fisabilillah, sistem Islam), kedua, dilaksanakan secara berjama’ah (terorganisir), ketiga, di dalamnya merupakan kegiatan untuk mempengaruhi umat manusia supaya masuk ke jalan Allah, keempat, dengan sasaran fardhiah dan jama’ah dan kelima, tabligh dalah bagian dari dakwah.
Berdasarkan pendapat di atas, maka dakwah Islam adalah mengajak umat manusia supaya masuk ke dalam jalan Allah (sistem Islam) secara menyeluruh baik dengan lisan dan tulisan maupun perbuatan sebagai ikhtiar muslim mewujudkan ajaran Islam menjadi kenyataan dalam kehidupan syahsyiah, usrah, jama’ah dan umat dalam semua segi kehidupan secara berja’mah (terorganisir) sehingga terwujud khairil ummah (Q.S. 16 : 125, 2 : 208, 5 : 67, 33 : 21, 3 : 104 dan 3 : 110). Dengan cara berjama’ah (terorganisir) diindikasikan oleh al-Qur’an dan Sunnah sebagai syarat tegaknya iktiar realisasi Islam, amar ma’ruf dan nahi munkar. Karena itu aspek organisasional dan manajerial merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dengan hakikat dakwah Islam. Dengan demikian tujuan akhir dakwah Islam adalah terwujudnya khairil ummah yang basisnya didukung oleh Muslim yang berkualitas khairil bariyyah yang oleh Allah dijanjikan akan memperoleh ridha Allah SWT (Q.S. 98 : 7 – 8). Tercapainya khairil ummah didahului oleh terwujudnya khairil bariyyah. Karena ummah merupakan konsep kesatuan fikrah dan jama’ah Islam. Sedangkan khairil bariyyah merupakan konsep kualitas sumber daya syahsyiah. Untuk itu, tegaknya khairil ummah ditopang terwujudnya khairil bariyyah. Basis integrasi khairil bersifat determinatif atas terwujudnya khairil jama’ah dan pada akhirnya, khairil jama’ah menjadi syarat mungkin terwujudnya khairil ummah.
Khairil bariyyah dapat terwujud, jika iman dapat ditransformasikan menjadi prilaku saleh (alam saleh dalam semua segi kehidupan), nilai-nilai Islam ditransformasikan menjadi realitas Islam, ideal-ideal Islam ditransformasikan menjadi tatanan Islam, konsep-konsep Islam ditransformasikan menjadi lembaga-lembaga Islam dan sebagainya. Hal ini dalam epistemologi Islam, iman dan amal saleh tidak dapat dipisahkan; iman baru nyata jika sudah menjadi realita prilaku saleh, tidak ada prilaku saleh tanpa dasar dan sebagai perwujudan iman. Karena itu, hubungan iman dan amal saleh bersifat organis, struktural dan fungsional.
Secara lebih jauh lagi hakekat dakwah adalah mengajak dan meluruskan kembali upaya manusia supaya kembali kepada (jalan) Allah, yakni kembali pada hakekat fitri (Q.S. 30 : 30). Karena manusia telah melakukan kesaksian bahwa Allah adalah Ilah yang sebenarnya, hakekat fungsi bahwa manusia adalah khalifah-Nya (Q.S. 2 : 30) dan hakekat tujuan bahwa semua kegiatan manusia selaku khalifah harus dilaksanakan dalam kerangka ibada kepada Allah (Q.S. 51 : 56). Kegiatan dakwah yang demikian essensial secara teknis berarti mengajak manusia untuk kembali kepada fitri, fungsi dan tujuan hakikinya dalam bentuk beriman dan mentransformasikan iman menjadi amal saleh yang dalam prosesnya senantiasa mengupayakan tegaknya keadilan (ma’ruf) dan mencegah kedzaliman (nahi munkar). Ketika iman mengalami transformasi menjadi realitas saleh dalam sistem kelembagaan Islam, maka pada saat itulah khairul ummah dapat terwujud.

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